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    初中英语|可能是最全的英语从句归纳

    2021-01-04 北师大初中英语 133 ℃ 0 评论
    原文标题:初中英语|可能是最全的英语从句归纳
    本文摘要:宾语从句一. 定义:宾语从句是指在一个句子中充当宾语的句子如:He said that he wanted to be a teacher when he grew up.二. 宾语从句有三种类型:1.由从属连词that引导的宾语从句表示陈... ...
    本文关键词:北师大版初中英语从句,电子版北师大初中英语书新北师大初中英语书
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    宾语从句


    一. 定义:宾语从句是指在一个句子中充当宾语的句子


    如:He said that he wanted to be a teacher when he grew up.


    二. 宾语从句有三种类型:


    1.由从属连词that引导的宾语从句表示陈述意义,连词that常可被省略。例如:


    I hope (that) they will have fun. Mary said that she felt sleepy.


    Can’t you see (that) I’m a bird?


    注意:(1)当主句的谓语动词是think,believe等时,宾语从句尽管要表示否定意义,却不用否定形式,而将think等动词变为否定形式。


    如:I don’t think he will come.我认为他不会来。


    (2)两个表示陈述意义的宾语从句并列时,有时省去第一个从句的连词that,但第二个从句的连词that一般不可以省略。如:


    He told me (that)they could not decide what to do and that they asked my advice.


    2.由从属连词if或whether引导的宾语从句表示“是否(有,能,已经……)”等一般疑问句的含义。


    例如:I wonder whether (if) he lives here.


    3.由连接代词who,whom,whose,what,which和连接副词when,where,how,why等引导的宾语从句表示“谁,谁的,什么,哪(个,些),何时,何地,怎样,为什么”等等特殊疑问句的意义。除了连接词及被修饰的词提前以外,宾语从句用陈述句语序。


    例如:


    To masked who could give the message to her mother.


    Do you know what he said just now? I wondered how old his brother was.


    三.宾语从句的时态呼应:“主现则从任,主过则从过,客观真理一般现”


    1.当主句是现在时或将来时的时候,宾语从句可以用所需要的任何时态。


    2.主句是过去时,宾语从句一般只能用过去时的某种形式;当从句叙述的是客观事实或一般真理时,宾语从句仍然用现在时态。


    3.情态动词must一般不用于过去时,但却可以用于主句是过去时的宾语从句中。


    四.宾语从句的语序


    1 宾语从句的连接词后加陈述语序(主语在前,谓语在后)


    如:I want to know if he can come tomorrow


    2 当连接词本身又是宾语从句的主语时,后面直接加谓语动词


    如:She asked me who had helped him


    状语从句


    英语中,修饰动词、形容词、副词等的句子成分叫状语。


    状语的功用:状语说明地点、时间、原因、目的、结果、条件、方向、程度、方式和伴随状况等,根据状语的功能状语从句可分为:时间状语从句、原因状语从句、目的状语从句、结果状语从句、条件状语从句。


    一.时间状语从句:在一个句子中作时间状语的句子。


    时间状语的连接词:when(当…时候) while(当…时候) as(当…时候) after(在…以后) before(在…以前) as soon as(一…就) since(自从…到现在) till /until(直到…才) by the time(到…为止)依旧是连接词后加陈述语序。


    1. when 当…的时候(一般情况下:主将从现)


    I will become a teacher when I grow up


    2. while 当…时


    He visited a lot of places while he was traveling.


    3. as 在…的同时;一边…一边…


    He smiled as he stood up.


    4. after 在…之后


    He left the classroom after he had finished his homework the other day.


    5. before 在…之前


    Mr. Brown had worked in a bank for a year before he came here.


    6. as soon as 一…就…(一般情况下:主将从现)


    We began to work as soon as we got there.


    I will write to you as soon as I get home.


    7. since 自…以来 到现在


    表示自过去的一个起点时间到目前(说话时间)为止的一段持续时间。主句一般用现在完成时,从句用一般过去时。


    Mr Green has taught in that school since he came to China three years ago. (还可以用作介词,本句从句还可以用短语:since three years ago(自三年前以来)表示。)


    8 till /until 直到


    都可以作连词,连接时间状语,也可以作介词,与其它词构成介词短语,在句中作状语。


    They walked till /until it was dark.


    Xiao Ming didn’t leave home till / until his father came back.


    9. by the time 到…为止 (所在句子的主句应用现在或过去完成时)


    By the time he gets there , his father has already gone.


    By the time I got to school, the class had already began.


    二.原因状语从句:在一个句子中作时间状语的句子。


    连接词:由连词because, since, as引导, 也可由for, now that 等词引导


    1.I didn’t go to school yesterday because I was ill.


    2. Since everybody is here, let’s begin our meeting. 既然。。。


    3. As you are in poor health, you should not stay up late. 既然。。。


    4.I asked her to stay to tea, for I had something to tell her.


    三、条件状语从句


    连接词:if如果, unless (=if not) 如果不、除非(让步)


    1. If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will go hiking.


    2. I will go to the party unless he goes there too.


    3. You will be late unless you leave immediately.


    =If you don’t leave immediately, you will be late.


    四、目的、结果状语从句


    目的状语从句是指在一个句子中充当目的状语的句子。


    结果状语从句是指在一个句子中充当结果状语的句子


    目的状语从句连接词so that, so…that , in order that 引导。


    结果状语从句连接词 so…that, such…that, so much/many…that引导。


    1. so…that 如此…以至于


    He always studied so hard that he made great progress.


    2. so that 以至于, 以便于


    I’ll run slowly so that you can catch up with me. (目的)


    I opened the window so that fresh air might come in. (目的)


    3. such…that 如此…以至


    It’s such nice weather that all of us want to go to the park.


    4. in order that=so that 为了


    We shall let you know the details soon in order that you can/may make your arrangements.


    5.比较:so和 such


    其规律由so与such的不同词性决定。such 是形容词,修饰名词或名词词组,so 是副词,只能修饰形容词或副词。 so 还可与表示数量的形容词many, few, much, little连用,形成固定搭配。


    so nice a flowersuch a nice flower


    so many / few flowerssuch nice flowers


    so many peoplesuch a lot of people


    五、让步状语从句 让步状语从句是指在句子中作让步的状语的句子


    连接词: though, although.,whether…or not


    难点:though, although当“虽然”讲, 都不能和but连用. Although/though…but的格式是不对的.但是他们都可以同yet (still) 连用. 所以thought (although)…yet(still)的格式是正确的.


    Wrong: Although he is rich but he is not happy.


    Right : Although he is rich, yet he is not happy.


    虽然他很富有, 然而他并不快乐.


    Right : Although we have grown up, our parents treat us as children


    Right : Although we have grown up, our parents still treat us as children.


    尽管我们已经长大了,可是我们的父母仍把我们看作小孩.


    定语从句


    定语是指在句子中用来修饰名词、代词的成分


    定语从句是指在一个句子中作定语的句子,定语从句要放在所修饰的词后


    如:I have met the doctor who is in the No.1 hospital.


    定语从句的连接词:


    1.连接代词:who、which、whom、whose、that


    2.连接副词:when、where、why


    选用连接词的关键是看先行词(定语从句所修饰的名词或代词)


    一、连接代词的选用:


    1.who 指人,先行词为人,在从句中做主语


    Yesterday I helped an old man who lost his way.


    2. whom 指人,先行词为人,在定语从句中充当宾语,常可省略。


    Mr. Liu is the person (whom) you talked about on the bus.


    注意:关系代词whom在口语和非正式语体中常用who代替,可省略。


    3.which 指物,先行词为物,在定语从句中做主语或者宾语,做宾语时可省略


    This is the pen (which) he bought yesterday.


    4. that 指人时,相当于who或者whom;指物时,相当于which。在定语从句中做主语或者宾语,做宾语时可省略。


    The number of the people that/who come to visit the city each year rises one million.


    Where is the man that/whom I saw this morning?


    5. whose 通常指人,也可指物,在定语从句中做定语,译成 "...的"


    He has a friend whose father is a doctor.


    指物时,常用以下结构来代替


    Do you like the book whose cover is yellow? = Do you like the book the color of which is yellow?


    介词+连接代词引导的定语从句连接代词在定语从句中做介词宾语时,从句常由介词+连接代词引导


    二、连接副词的选用:


    1. when指时间,在定语从句中做时间状语


    I still remember the day when I first came to the school.


    2. where指地点,在定语从句中做地点状语


    Shanghai is the city where I was born.


    3. why指原因,在定语从句中做原因状语


    Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane.


    三、判断关系代词和关系副词的方法: 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状)


    例1. Is this the museum ___ you visited a few days ago?


    A. whereB. that C. on which D. the one


    例2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held?


    A. whereB. that C. on whichD. the one


    关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系代词 (who, whom, that, which, whose);


    先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词 ( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语)


    四、介词+连接词用法说明


    1)介词后面的关系词不能省略。


    2)that前不能有介词。


    3)某些在从句中充当时间,地点或原因状语的"介词+关系词"结构可以同关系副词when ,where和why 互换


    如:This is the house in which I lived two years ago.This is the house where I lived two years ago.


    Do you remember the day on which you joined our club?Do you remember the day when you joined our club?


    This is the reason why he came late.


    This is the reason for which he came late.


    五.限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句


    限制性定语从句举例:


    china is a country which has a long history.


    非限制性定语从句举例:


    his mother, who loves him very much, is strict with him.


    同位语从句


    一.一般来说,在主从复合句中,用作同位语的从句叫同位语从句。


    它通常跟在某些名词之后,用以说明或解释该名词表示的具体内容。可以跟同位语从句的名词通常有:advice, decision, fact, hope, idea, information, message, news, promise, proposal, reply, report, suggestion, word(消息),problem, question, doubt, thought等。


    如:They were delighted at the news that their team had won.


    有时同位语从句可以不紧跟在被说明的名词后面,而被别的词隔开。 如:


    The thought came to him that Tom might have returned the book.


    二.引导词


    1. The news that Mr. Li will be our new English teacher is true.


    2. He hasn’t made the decision whether he will go there.


    3. The question who should do the work is being discussed at the meeting.


    4. I have no idea what the boy is doing in the next room now.


    5. We haven’t yet settled the question where we are going to spend our summer vacation this year.


    6. I have no idea how I can get to the railway station.


    7. I have no idea when he will be back.


    小结:① that引导同位语从句时无词义,也不充当任何成分,但通常不可以省略,如句1;


    ② whether引导同位语从句时意为“是否”,通常不能用if来代替, 如句2;


    ③ 连接代词who, what等可以引导同位语从句,如句3, 4;


    ④ 连接副词where, how, when等可以引导同位语从句, 如句5,6,7。


    三. that 引导的同位语从句和定语从句


    1. 意义不同:同位语从句用来进一步说明前面名词的内容;而定语从句用来修饰、限定前面的先行词。试比较:


    -The news that our team has won the final match is encouraging.


    -The news that you told us is really encouraging.


    2.that的功能不同:that引导同位语从句时是一个纯连词,不充当任何成分;而引导定语从句时,不仅起连接作用,而且还指代先行词并在从句中充当主语、宾语等成分。试比较:


    -Dad made a promise that he would buy me a CD player if I passed the English test.


    -Dad made a promise that excited all his children.


    3.可否省略:that在引导同位语从句时,通常不可省略。在引导定语从句时,若在从句中作宾语,通常可以省略,若作主语则不可以省略。


    主语从句


    一.由连词that引导的主语从句: 引导词that无含义,在句中不做成分,不可以省。


    That you will win the medal seems unlikely. 你想获得奖牌看起来是不可能的。


    二.用连词 whether 引导的主语从句: whether有含义(是否),在句中不做成分,不可以省。


    Whether she is coming or not doesn’t matter too much.


    她来不来都无关紧要。


    三.用连接代词引导的主语从句(在由连接代词who, whose, whom, which, what, whoever, whomever, whichever, whatever引导的名词性从句中,其连接代词在句中起名词性作用,担当一定成分).


    What you need is more practice.


    你所需要的是更多的训练。


    Whatever we do is to serve the people.


    我们无论做什么都是为人民服务。


    四.用连接副词when, where, why, how引导的名词性从句(其连接副词有含义,在句中作状语。)


    Where we should leave it is a problem.


    表语从句


    一. 在复合句中作表语的从句, 就叫做表语从句。


    表语从句一般放在系动词之后,结构是“主语+系动词+表语从句”。


    连系动词:be动词、表示持续的系动词(keep, remain, stay)、感官动词feel(摸起来,感觉) , smell(闻起来) , sound(听起来) , taste(尝起来,吃起来) 等、表示变化的系动词(become, grow, turn, fall, get, go,)、表终止的系动词prove, turn out(结果是,证明是)、seem, appear(看起来···)


    连系动词通常不用于被动语态和进行时态中。


    He has become what he wanted to be ten years ago.


    他已经成为了他10年前想成为的。


    His suggestion is that we should stay calm.


    他的建议是,我们应该保持冷静。


    二.表语从句的引导词


    1.从属连词:that / whether /as if /as though/as/because


    (1) that引导表语从句本身没有词义,在句中只起连接作用,不充当句子成分,一般不能省略。


    That fact is that more than seventy percent of the earth’s surface is covered by water.


    连接词that一般不能省略,但当主句中含动词do的某种形式时,that可以省略。


    What I want to do is (that) I can go up to him and thank him.


    我想做的事是走到身边去感谢他。


    (2) whether引导表语从句表示“是否”,但不充当句子的成分。


    The question is whether we can finish our work by tomorrow evening.


    if 与whether均意为“是否”,但引导表语从句时,只能用whether, 不能用if。


    (3)as if/though“好像”,引导表语从句时要注意语态.


    如果句中的情况与事实不相符,从句多用虚拟语气。如果从句表示与现在事实相反,谓语动词用一般过去式;如果从句表示与过去事实相反时,谓语动词要用“had + 过去分词 ”,如果从句表示将来的可能性不大,用would (might ,could )+动词原形.


    -Li Lei is now in a new jacket. He looks as if he were an American boy. (现在事实相反)


    -The girl is giving us a vivid description of the moon. It seems as if she had been to the moon many times. (与过去事实相反)


    -It looks as if it might rain. (与将来事实相反)


    但是,如果as if/though引导的表语从句所表示的与事实相符,从句则用陈述语气。


    The clouds are gathering. It looks as if is going to rain.


    (4) as引导表语从句


    He looked just as he had looked ten years before.


    他看起来还与十年前一样。


    (5) because引导表语从句


    常用结构:This/That/It is/was because····


    That is because I don’t like Chinese.


    2.连接代词:


    who/whom/whose/what/which/whoever/whatever/whichever/whomever


    在表语从句中做主语、宾语、表语和定语。


    -Tom is no longer what he used to be. (what做表语)


    -The problem is who is fit for this job. (who做主语)


    -This is what I want to tell you. (what做宾语)


    -The problem is whose work is the best. (whose做定语)


    3.连接副词:when/where/how/why,在表语从句中做状语。


    -The question is how he did it.


    问题是他是如何做此事的。


    -The question is where we can live.


    问题是我们能住在哪儿。


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    标签:北师大版初中英语从句

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