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    高中英语 定语从句精讲精练

    2021-01-27 外研社高中英语 11 ℃ 0 评论
    原文标题:高中英语 定语从句精讲精练
    本文摘要:高中英语 定语从句精讲精练1.(2019·全国卷II,62) Now Irene Astbury works from 9 am to 5 pm daily at the pet shop in Macclesfield,_____she... ...
    本文关键词:外研社高中英语精讲精练,新版高中英语必修一单词表外研社外研社高中英语必修四课文
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    高中英语 定语从句精讲精练



    1.(2019·全国卷II,62) Now Irene Astbury works from 9 am to 5 pm daily at the pet shop in Macclesfield,_____she opened with her late husband Les.


    答案which


    【解析】考查非限制性定语从句。句意:现在艾琳·阿斯特伯里每天上午9点到下午5点在麦克莱斯菲尔德的宠物店工作,她和她已故的丈夫莱斯一起开业。句中先行词为Macclesfield ,在从句中作宾语 ,故用which 。


    2.(2019·全国卷III)In the cafe,customers will enjoy themselves in the historical environment_______is created for them.


    答案that/which


    【解析】考查定语从句。句意:在咖啡馆里,顾客将享受为他们创造的历史环境。句中先行词为 environment ,在从句中作主语 ,故用 that/which 。


    3.(2019 江苏卷,21 )We have entered into an age _______ dreams have the best chance of coming true.


    答案when


    【解析】考查定语从句。句意:句中先行词为age,在从句中作状语 ,故用when 。


    4.(2019·天津卷,11) Their child is at the stage______ she can say individual words but not full sentences.


    答案where


    【解析】考查定语从句。句意:句中先行词为 stage,在从句中作状语 ,故用 where 。


    (2019·新课标III卷)They were well trained by their masters __ ___ had great experience with caring for these animals.


    答案 who


    【解析】考查定语从句。句意:句中先行词为masters ,在从句中作主语 ,故用 who 。


    6. (2019·北京卷)The students befitting most from college are those ___ ___ are totally engaged(参与)in academic life.


    答案 who/that


    【解析】考查定语从句。句意:句中先行词为 ,在从句中作 ,故用 。


    7.【2018·北京】She and her family bicycle to work, _________ helps them keep fit.


    A. which B. who C. as D. that


    【答案】A


    【解析】考查非限制性定语从句。句意:她和家人骑自行车去上班,这有助于她们保持健康。“____ helps them keep fit”是非限制性定语从句,该从句修饰整个主句,引导词在从句中做主语,故该从句应用关系代词which引导。A选项正确。


    8.【2018·天津】Kate, ________sister I shared a room with when we were at college, has gone to work in Australia.


    A. whom B. that C. whose D. her


    【答案】C


    【解析】考查定语从句关系词。句意:凯特已经去澳大利亚工作了。我们在大学的时候,我和她的姐姐共住一室。分析句子,句中先行词为Kate,在非限定性定语从句中作名词sister的定语,故用关系代词whose。故选C.


    9.【2018·江苏】Self-driving is an area _______ China and the rest of the world are on the same starting line.


    A. that B. where C. which D. when


    【答案】B


    【解析】考查定语从句。句意:自动驾驶是一个中国和世界其它国家都在同一起跑线的领域。句中先行词为area,在从句中作地点状语,故用关系副词where,相当于in which。故选B。


    10.【2017·北京】The little problems ______ we meet in our daily lives may be inspirations for great inventions.


    A. that B. as C. where D. when


    【答案】A


    【解析】考查定语从句。句意:我们在日差生活中遇到额小问题可能就是伟大发明的灵感。此句是定语从句,从句缺少宾语,先行词是problems,用that.


    11.【2017·江苏】In 1963 the UN set up the World Food Programme, one of ______ purposes is to relieve worldwide starvation.


    A. which B. it’s C. whose D. whom


    【答案】C


    【解析】考查定语从句。先行词是“the World Food Programme”,“世界粮食项目”的目的之一是……,whose在定语从句中作定语,这里限定purposes,故选C。句意:1963年联合国建立了世界粮食计划署,其目的之一就是为了缓解世界范围内的饥饿问题。


    12.【2017·天津】My eldest son, _______ work takes him all over the world, is in New York at the moment.


    A. that B. whose C. his D. who


    【答案】B


    【解析】句意:我的最大的儿子,他的工作带着他去全世界,现在在纽约。本句是一个非限定性定语从句,先行词是My eldest son,根据句意和空后名词,确定引导词做定语,在定语从句中有引导词whose修饰名词做定语,意思为:……的。故选B。


    13.【2016·北京】I live next door to a couple ________ children often make a lot of noise.


    A. whose B. why C. where D. which


    【答案】A


    【解析】考查定语从句的关系词。a couple是先行词,这对夫妻的孩子很吵,children和couple是所属关系,故用whose作定语,whose children相当于the children of whom,故选A。


    14.【2016·江苏】Many young people, most ______were well-educated, headed for remote regions to chase their dreams.


    A. of which B. of them C. of whom D. of those


    【答案】C


    【解析】考查定语从句。本题定语从句的先行词是Many young people,关系代词whom指代先行词,在定语从句中作为介词of的宾语。句意:很多年轻人都前往偏远地区追求他们的梦想,其中大部分人都是受过良好教育的。故选C。


    15.【2016·浙江】Scientists have advanced many theories about why human beings cry tears , none of ______ has been proved.


    A. whom B. which C. what D. that


    【答案】B


    【解析】句意:关于人类为什么哭的时候会流泪,科学家已经提出了很多理论,没有一个被证明了。使用定语从句,先行词是theories,指物,定语从句中用代词+介词+关系代词which引导,故选B。


    16.【2016·天津】We will put off the picnic in the park until next week, ______ the weather may be better.


    A. that B. where C. which D. when


    【答案】D


    【解析】句意:我们将把公园的野餐推迟到下个星期,那时天气可能会更好。使用定语从句,先行词是next week,定语从句中不缺少主宾表,缺少时间状语。故选D。




    考点解读语法填空


    (2018·全国卷Ⅰ)Two of the authors of the review also made a study published in 2014 that/which showed a mere five to 10 minutes a day of running reduced the risk of heart disease and early deaths from all causes.


    (2018·全国卷Ⅱ)The Chinese Ministry of Agriculture finds that between 2005—when the government started a soiltesting program that/which gives specific fertilizer recommendations to farmers—and 2011, fertilizer use dropped by 7.7 million tons.


    (2018·浙江卷6月)Many westerners who/that come to China cook much less than in their own countries once they realize how cheap it can be to eat out.


    (2017·全国卷Ⅲ)But Sarah, who has taken part in shows along with top models, wants to prove that she has brains as well as beauty.


    (2016·全国卷Ⅰ)But my connection with pandas goes back to my days on a TV show in the mid1980s, when I was the first Western TV reporter permitted to film a special unit caring for pandas rescued from starvation in the wild.




    关系代词aswhich的用法区别


    as引导非限制性定语从句,可放在主句前、中、后,as常译为“正如……,正像……”。从句的谓语动词多为see, know, expect, say, mention, report等


    which引导非限制性定语从句修饰前面整个句子时,只能置于主句后,常译为“这一点,这件事”等,which引导的从句与主句之间常含有并列或因果关系


    ◆(2018·北京卷)She and her family bicycle to work, which helps them keep fit.


    她和她的家人骑自行车上班,这有助于他们保持健康。


    ◆(2017·北京卷)The little problems that we meet in our daily lives may be inspirations for great inventions.


    我们在日常生活中遇到的小问题可能是伟大发明的灵感。


    ◆(2017·天津卷)My eldest son, whose work takes him all over the world, is in New York at the moment.


    我大儿子的工作需要他奔波于世界各地,他现在在纽约。


    ◆(全国卷Ⅰ)“You can’t judge a book by its cover,” as the old saying goes.


    正如老话说的那样:“人不可貌相。”


    (1)whom, which, that在从句中作宾语时可省略;但介词提前时不能省略,也不能用that;


    (2)as用在限制性定语从句中时,常用于下列句式:such+名词+as(像……一样的,像……之类的);the same+名词+as(和……同样的)。


    Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in China.


    像在我们车间使用的机器是中国制造的。


    [对点演练]——单句语法填空


    1.(2018·天津卷)Kate, whose sister I shared a room with when we were at college, has gone to work in Australia.


    2.(福建卷)China Today attracts a worldwide readership, which shows that more and more people all over the world want to learn about China.


    3.(江苏卷)The number of smokers, as is reported, has dropped by 17 percent in just one year.



    ◆(天津卷)The days are gone when physical strength was all you needed to make a living.


    完全靠体力谋生的时代已经一去不复返了。


    ◆(福建卷)Students should involve themselves in community activities where they can gain experience for growth.


    学生们应该参与社团活动,在这些活动中他们可以获得成长的经验。


    ◆Do you know the reason why he didn’t attend the meeting yesterday?


    你知道他昨天没参加会议的原因吗?


    way后定语从句的引导词


    (1)当先行词是way时,若定语从句中不缺少主语、宾语或表语,即way在从句中作状语时,则从句用in which或that引导,引导词也可省略。


    (2)如果way作先行词,定语从句中缺少主语、宾语或表语,则用which或that引导该从句。若先行词在定语从句中作宾语,which或that也可省略。


    [对点演练]——单句语法填空


    1.(2018·江苏卷)Selfdriving is an area where China and the rest of the world are on the same starting line.


    2.(陕西卷)As the smallest child of his family, Alex is always longing for the time when he should be able to be independent.


    有时为了表达清楚,还可以在关系副词where/when前加介词from或to


    ◆(2016·浙江卷6月)Scientists have advanced many theories about why human beings cry tears, none of which has been proved.


    科学家们提出了很多关于人类为什么哭泣时流泪的理论,这些理论尚未得到证实。


    ◆(2016·江苏卷)Many young people, most of whom were welleducated, headed for remote regions to chase their dreams.


    很多年轻人都去了偏远地区追求他们的梦想,他们中大部分都受过良好的教育。


    ◆(江苏卷)The newlybuilt café, the walls of which(=whose walls) are painted light green, is really a peaceful place for us, especially after hard work.


    这家新建成的咖啡馆,墙被刷成了浅绿色,对我们来说,真是一个安静的地方,特别是在辛苦工作后。


    ◆(辽宁卷)He may win the competition, in which case he is likely to get into the national team.


    他可能会赢得这场比赛,如果这样的话他就可能进入国家队。


    [对点演练]——单句语法填空1.The house, whose door often stays open until late at night, works as a home for the guards, some of whom are from the countryside.


    2.—Thank you for your assistance, without which I might have been in danger.


    —That’s all right, anyone in my place would have done the same thing.


    解题指导


    “缺什么,补什么”,准确选用关系词


    1.如果先行词指人,定语从句中缺少主语,限制性定语从句中用who/that;非限制性定语从句中用who。


    2.如果先行词指人,定语从句中缺少宾语,限制性定语从句中用who/that/whom;非限制性定语从句中用whom。


    3.如果先行词指物,定语从句中缺少主语或宾语,限制性定语从句中用which/that;非限制性定语从句中用which。


    4.如果先行词指时间或地点,定语从句中缺少时间状语或地点状语,定语从句中用when/where; 如果从句中缺少的是主语或宾语,则用that/which。


    5.不论先行词指人还是物,只要关系词在定语从句中作定语就用whose。


    6.如果先行词指人,“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句中的关系词用whom;如果先行词指物,“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句中的关系词用which。



    【高考模拟】


    1.(2019·河南中原名校联考)I have made a habit of saying“Thank you” to those


    offer their seats to the fellow passengers on public transport.


    who 解析:句意:我已经习惯对那些在公共交通工具上把座位让给同车的乘客的人说声“谢谢”。设空处引导定语从句,先行词为those,指人,且关系词在从句中作主语,故填who。


    2.(2019·山西晋商四校联考)Finally, after four hours, they arrived at the campsite


    their parents were waiting.


    where 解析:句意:最后,在4个小时之后他们到达了营地,他们的父母正在那里等着他们。先行词为campsite,将先行词代入定语从句后可知先行词在定语从句中作地点状语,故填where。


    3.(2019·江西重点中学联盟联考)At Pets Corner, we have always tried to apply an honest and moral approach to everything we do.


    that 解析:句意:在宠物角,我们总是试图去将一种诚实和道德的方法运用到我们做的所有事上。此处先行词为不定代词everything,且关系词在定语从句中作宾语,故用关系代词that。


    4.(2019·潍坊实验中学模拟)At 16, I left home to do parttime jobs, made me understand “East or west, home is the best” better.


    which 解析: 第二个逗号后面为非限制性定语从句,引导词作主语且代替前面的整个句子,故用which引导。


    5.(2019·甘肃兰州一中期中)By the way, it’s my sincere hope that you can spare some time for a visit to Tianjin again, has changed a lot since 2019.


    which 解析: 分析句子结构可知,句中含有一个非限制性定语从句,先行词为Tianjin,指物,关系词在定语从句中作主语,应用关系代词which引导。


    6.(2019·福建六校联考)Get yourself familiar with local laws and customs of the countries to


    you are travelling.


    which 解析:句意:熟悉一下你要去旅行的国家的当地的法律和风俗。分析句子结构可知,本句含“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句,先行词为countries,指物,故填which。


    7.(2019·河南天一大联考)Beijing Opera has a history of 200 years origin can be seen as old local operas, especially Anhui Opera.


    whose 解析:空处引导限制性定语从句,修饰先行词Beijing Opera,并在定语从句作定语,故填whose。


    8.(2019·河南洛阳第一次统考)It was a time my family was going through financial difficulties.


    when 解析:句意:那段时间,我的家庭正经历财政困难。根据句意以及句子结构可知空处引导定语从句,a time为先行词,空处在从句中作时间状语,故用关系副词when。


    9.(2019·福建龙岩质检)This is such a place all the people across the world are dreaming of visiting.


    as 解析:句意:这是一个全世界所有的人都梦想游览的地方。定语从句的先行词为a place,其前有such修饰,应用关系代词as引导。


    10.(2019·天津十二区县重点中学联考)You may search on the Internet for professors and their courses about the university may interest you.


    that 解析:句意:你可以在网上搜索这所大学中你可能感兴趣的教授和他们的课程信息。分析句子结构可知,设空处引导定语从句,先行词为professors and their courses,既有人又有物,且关系词在从句中作主语,故用that引导。



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